Constants

Constants are a way of giving a name to shared, static values inside of a module or script.

The constant's must be known at compilation. The constant's value is stored in the compiled module or script. And each time the constant is used, a new copy of that value is made.

Declaration#

Constant declarations begin with the const keyword, followed by a name, a type, and a value. They can exist in either a script or module

const <name>: <type> = <expression>;

For example

script {
const MY_ERROR_CODE: u64 = 0;
fun main(input: u64) {
assert(input > 0, MY_ERROR_CODE);
}
}
address 0x42 {
module Example {
const MY_ADDRESS: address = 0x42;
public fun permissioned(s: &signer) {
assert(0x1::Signer::address_of(s) == MY_ADDRESS, 0);
}
}
}

Naming#

Constants must start with a capital letter A to Z. After the first letter, constant names can contain underscores _, letters a to z, letters A to Z, or digits 0 to 9.

const FLAG: bool = false;
const MY_ERROR_CODE: u64 = 0;
const ADDRESS_42: address = 0x42;

Even though you can use letters a to z in a constant. The general style guidelines are to use just uppercase letters A to Z, with underscores _ between each word.

This naming restriction of starting with A to Z is in place to give room for future language features. It may or may not be removed later.

Visibility#

public constants are not currently supported. const values can be used only in the declaring module.

Valid Expressions#

Currently, constants are limited to the primitive types bool, u8, u64, u128, address, and vector<u8>. Future support for other vector values (besides the "string"-style literals) will come later.

Values#

Commonly, consts are assigned a simple value, or literal, of their type. For example

const MY_BOOL: bool = false;
const MY_ADDRESS: address = 0x70DD;
const BYTES: vector<u8> = b"hello world";
const HEX_BYTES: vector<u8> = x"DEADBEEF";

Complex Expressions#

In addition to literals, constants can include more complex expressions, as long as the compiler is able to reduce the expression to a value at compile time.

Currently, equality operations, all boolean operations, all bitwise operations, and all arithmetic operations can be used.

const RULE: bool = true && false;
const CAP: u64 = 10 * 100 + 1;
const SHIFTY: u8 = {
(1 << 1) * (1 << 2) * (1 << 3) * (1 << 4)
};
const HALF_MAX: u128 = 340282366920938463463374607431768211455 / 2;
const EQUAL: bool = 1 == 1;

If the operation would result in a runtime exception, the compiler will give an error that it is unable to generate the constant's value

const DIV_BY_ZERO: u64 = 1 / 0; // error!
const SHIFT_BY_A_LOT: u64 = 1 << 100; // error!
const NEGATIVE_U64: u64 = 0 - 1; // error!

Note that constants cannot currently refer to other constants. This feature, along with support for other expressions, will be added in the future.

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